Friday, March 18, 2005

Race, General histories

Histories dealing with the origin of the concept of race include Ivan Hannaford, Race: The History of an Idea in the West (1996); and Audrey Smedley, Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview, 2nd ed. (1999).

Thursday, March 17, 2005


City, seat (1842) of Summit county, northeastern Ohio, U.S. It lies along the Cuyahoga River, 41 miles (66 km) south-southeast of Cleveland. Akron is the centre of a metropolitan area that includes the cities of Cuyahoga Falls, Tallmadge, and Stow and several villages. At 1,200 feet (370 m) above sea level, it was named for its “high place” (Greek: akros) on the watershed between the Mississippi River and

Tuesday, March 15, 2005

Atmosphere, Ionospheric variations

The ionosphere is variable in space and time. Some of the changes are chemical in origin and can be readily understood on the basis of the general considerations outlined above. There is a systematic variation, for example, as a function of time of day. In the early morning the Sun is relatively low in the sky. Radiation must penetrate a large column of air before reaching

Saturday, March 12, 2005

Yale, Linus

At first Yale tried portrait painting, but he became interested in locks after his father began to manufacture bank locks in Newport, N.Y., about 1840. His first achievement was the Yale Infallible Bank Lock in 1851. Later he opened his own shop in Shelburne

Thursday, March 10, 2005


The earliest integrator was a mechanical instrument called the planimeter (q.v.). The illustration (top) shows a simple mechanical integrator of the disk-and-wheel variety,

Tuesday, March 08, 2005

Ilerda, Campaign Of

(49 BC), the campaign leading to the victory of Julius Caesar over Pompey's forces in Spain. In the spring of 49 BC, Caesar sent six legions from Gaul into Spain under Gaius Fabius and joined them at Ilerda (Lérida) on the Sicoris (Segre) River. Five Pompeian legions, together with many Spanish auxiliaries, commanded by Lucius Afranius and Marcus Petreius, were concentrated against

Sunday, March 06, 2005

France, History Of, The Dreyfus affair

The 1890s also saw the Third Republic's greatest political and moral crisis—the Dreyfus affair. In 1894 Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a career army officer of Jewish origin, was charged with selling military secrets to the Germans. He was tried and convicted by a court-martial and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil's Island off the South American coast. Efforts by the Dreyfus